Understanding the reasons for the success of deep neural networks trained using stochastic gradient-based methods is a key open problem for the nascent theory of deep learning. The types of data where these networks are most successful, such as images or sequences of speech, are characterized by intricate correlations. Yet, most theoretical work on neural networks does not explicitly model training data or assumes that elements of each data sample are drawn independently from some factorized probability distribution. These approaches are, thus, by construction blind to the correlation structure of real-world datasets and their impact on learning in neural networks. Here, we introduce a generative model for structured datasets that we call the hidden manifold model. The idea is to construct high-dimensional inputs that lie on a lower-dimensional manifold, with labels that depend only on their position within this manifold, akin to a single-layer decoder or generator in a generative adversarial network. We demonstrate that learning of the hidden manifold model is amenable to an analytical treatment by proving a "Gaussian equivalence property" (GEP), and we use the GEP to show how the dynamics of two-layer neural networks trained using one-pass stochastic gradient descent is captured by a set of integro-differential equations that track the performance of the network at all times. This approach permits us to analyze in detail how a neural network learns functions of increasing complexity during training, how its performance depends on its size, and how it is impacted by parameters such as the learning rate or the dimension of the hidden manifold.

Modeling the influence of data structure on learning in neural networks: the hidden manifold model

Mezard, Marc;
2020

Abstract

Understanding the reasons for the success of deep neural networks trained using stochastic gradient-based methods is a key open problem for the nascent theory of deep learning. The types of data where these networks are most successful, such as images or sequences of speech, are characterized by intricate correlations. Yet, most theoretical work on neural networks does not explicitly model training data or assumes that elements of each data sample are drawn independently from some factorized probability distribution. These approaches are, thus, by construction blind to the correlation structure of real-world datasets and their impact on learning in neural networks. Here, we introduce a generative model for structured datasets that we call the hidden manifold model. The idea is to construct high-dimensional inputs that lie on a lower-dimensional manifold, with labels that depend only on their position within this manifold, akin to a single-layer decoder or generator in a generative adversarial network. We demonstrate that learning of the hidden manifold model is amenable to an analytical treatment by proving a "Gaussian equivalence property" (GEP), and we use the GEP to show how the dynamics of two-layer neural networks trained using one-pass stochastic gradient descent is captured by a set of integro-differential equations that track the performance of the network at all times. This approach permits us to analyze in detail how a neural network learns functions of increasing complexity during training, how its performance depends on its size, and how it is impacted by parameters such as the learning rate or the dimension of the hidden manifold.
2020
2020
Goldt, Sebastian; Mezard, Marc; Krzakala, Florent; Zdeborova, Lenka
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11565/4061661
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