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|Titolo:||Schumpeterian patterns of innovation are technology specific|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1996|
|Autori interni:||MALERBA, FRANCO|
|Autori:||F. MALERBA; ORSENIGO L.|
|Abstract:||This paper examines the patterns of innovative activities at the technological and country levels, using patent data for 49 technological classes in six countries (USA, Japan, Germany, France, United Kingdom and Italy). It is shown that the patterns of innovative activities differ systematically across technological classes, but are remarkably similar across countries for each technological class. In particular, two groups of technological classes are identified: ‘Schumpeter Mark I’ and ‘Schumpeter Mark II’. In these two groups innovative activities are structured and organized in different ways. The first represents a widening pattern: concentration of innovative activities is low, innovators are of small economic size, stability in the ranking of innovators is low and entry of new innovators is high. The second represents a deepening pattern: concentration of innovative activities is higher than in the first group, innovators are of larger economic size, stability in the ranking of innovators is greater, and entry is lower. The former group comprises mechanical technologies and traditional sectors, while the latter includes chemicals and electronics. This result suggests that technology-related factors (such as technological regimes, defined in terms of conditions of opportunity, appropriability, cumulativeness and properties of the knowledge base) play a major role in determining the specific pattern of innovative activities of a technological class across countries. Within these constraints, country-specific factors introduce differences across countries in the pattern of innovative activities for a specific technological class. Finally, the relationships between the specific features of the patterns of innovative activities and international technological specialization are examined. Technological advantages appear in general to be linked to higher degrees of asymmetries among innovators, higher stability of the ranking of innovators, smaller economic size of the innovating firms and lower entry rates of new innovators. These relationships, however, are different in the two groups of technological classes. In Schumpeter Mark I (widening) technological classes, international technological specialization is associated with relatively higher degrees of asymmetries among innovators and entry of new innovators (as well as smaller firm size) while in Schumpeter II (deepening) technological classes, international technological specialization is linked to the existence of a stable but competitive core of persistent innovators|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista Scientifica|
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