Empirical studies on the landscape of neural networks have shown that low-energy configurations are often found in complex connected structures, where zero-energy paths between pairs of distant solutions can be constructed. Here, we consider the spherical negative perceptron, a prototypical nonconvex neural network model framed as a continuous constraint satisfaction problem. We introduce a general analytical method for computing energy barriers in the simplex with vertex configurations sampled from the equilibrium. We find that in the overparametrized regime the solution manifold displays simple connectivity properties. There exists a large geodesically convex component that is attractive for a wide range of optimization dynamics. Inside this region we identify a subset of atypical high-margin solutions that are geodesically connected with most other solutions, giving rise to a star-shaped geometry. We analytically characterize the organization of the connected space of solutions and show numerical evidence of a transition, at larger constraint densities, where the aforementioned simple geodesic connectivity breaks down.

Star-shaped space of solutions of the spherical negative perceptron

Annesi, Brandon Livio;Lauditi, Clarissa;Lucibello, Carlo;Malatesta, Enrico M.
;
Perugini, Gabriele;Pittorino, Fabrizio;Saglietti, Luca
2023

Abstract

Empirical studies on the landscape of neural networks have shown that low-energy configurations are often found in complex connected structures, where zero-energy paths between pairs of distant solutions can be constructed. Here, we consider the spherical negative perceptron, a prototypical nonconvex neural network model framed as a continuous constraint satisfaction problem. We introduce a general analytical method for computing energy barriers in the simplex with vertex configurations sampled from the equilibrium. We find that in the overparametrized regime the solution manifold displays simple connectivity properties. There exists a large geodesically convex component that is attractive for a wide range of optimization dynamics. Inside this region we identify a subset of atypical high-margin solutions that are geodesically connected with most other solutions, giving rise to a star-shaped geometry. We analytically characterize the organization of the connected space of solutions and show numerical evidence of a transition, at larger constraint densities, where the aforementioned simple geodesic connectivity breaks down.
2023
2023
Annesi, Brandon Livio; Lauditi, Clarissa; Lucibello, Carlo; Malatesta, Enrico M.; Perugini, Gabriele; Pittorino, Fabrizio; Saglietti, Luca
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11565/4061056
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