In the late twentieth century, the European Union emerged as a global leader in setting environmental protections, including vehicle emissions standards. But member state consensus around environmental rules did not come easily, and the regional norms eventually set by the EU and its predecessor, the European Community (EC), had complex origins. This article finds that common emissions standards were ultimately achieved through a public-private process during the program to create a Single Market in the 1980s and 1990s. For regional policymakers, standards were key to achieving an internal car market and strengthening the auto industry’s global competitiveness; for many European carmakers and their transnational business associations, common norms could facilitate economies of scale and level the competitive playing field. The “liberal environmentalism” born out of this convergence of interests produced common standards that fell pragmatically between the greenest member states and those most invested in protecting their national champion firms.

Liberal environmentalism: the public-private production of European emissions standards

Ballor, Grace
2023

Abstract

In the late twentieth century, the European Union emerged as a global leader in setting environmental protections, including vehicle emissions standards. But member state consensus around environmental rules did not come easily, and the regional norms eventually set by the EU and its predecessor, the European Community (EC), had complex origins. This article finds that common emissions standards were ultimately achieved through a public-private process during the program to create a Single Market in the 1980s and 1990s. For regional policymakers, standards were key to achieving an internal car market and strengthening the auto industry’s global competitiveness; for many European carmakers and their transnational business associations, common norms could facilitate economies of scale and level the competitive playing field. The “liberal environmentalism” born out of this convergence of interests produced common standards that fell pragmatically between the greenest member states and those most invested in protecting their national champion firms.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11565/4055836
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