Financial law and regulation have, to date, assumed that regulated activities and functions are concentrated in a single legal entity responsible and accountable for operations and compliance. This regulatory paradigm is under pressure in the world of DLT-based payment arrangements where some ledgers are distributed. DLT arrangements could provide an alternative to the traditional reliance on a mutually trusted central entity to transfer funds and enable the creation of new foundational infrastructures by distributing technical functions or linking existing systems. As such, we identify and outline concepts for use cases where DLT is potentially improving the efficiency of cross-border payments, namely a Best Execution DLT, a DLT application for a Network of Central Banks, a DLT as an AML/KYC utility, as well as DLT arrangements for an Identity Platform, a Small Payments Platform and, finally, an Interoperability Platform connecting multiple closed-loop and proprietary banking systems. Despite the wide-ranging interest in DLT-based payment systems, research so far has focused on technical concepts and lacked legal details. This paper seeks to fill this gap by providing an initial analysis of the legal challenges related to DLT-based payment systems. From a legal perspective, the distribution of functions in DLTs comes with new risks, and the need for additional agreements, ongoing coordination across, and governance arrangements among the nodes. Further, in a cross-border context, multiple regulators and courts of various countries (asking for compliance with their own set of rules and regular reporting) will be involved. All of these must decide whether for compliance with the law and regulations they look at the DLT as a whole (herein called ‘the ledger perspective’) or each individual node (that is each institution participating in the DLT, herein called ‘the node perspective’). Moreover, financial and private law must provide for risk allocation, liability, responsibility and accountability for all legal obligations related to each function and activity.

DLT-based enhancement of cross-border payment efficiency – a legal and regulatory perspective

Passador, Maria Lucia;
2021

Abstract

Financial law and regulation have, to date, assumed that regulated activities and functions are concentrated in a single legal entity responsible and accountable for operations and compliance. This regulatory paradigm is under pressure in the world of DLT-based payment arrangements where some ledgers are distributed. DLT arrangements could provide an alternative to the traditional reliance on a mutually trusted central entity to transfer funds and enable the creation of new foundational infrastructures by distributing technical functions or linking existing systems. As such, we identify and outline concepts for use cases where DLT is potentially improving the efficiency of cross-border payments, namely a Best Execution DLT, a DLT application for a Network of Central Banks, a DLT as an AML/KYC utility, as well as DLT arrangements for an Identity Platform, a Small Payments Platform and, finally, an Interoperability Platform connecting multiple closed-loop and proprietary banking systems. Despite the wide-ranging interest in DLT-based payment systems, research so far has focused on technical concepts and lacked legal details. This paper seeks to fill this gap by providing an initial analysis of the legal challenges related to DLT-based payment systems. From a legal perspective, the distribution of functions in DLTs comes with new risks, and the need for additional agreements, ongoing coordination across, and governance arrangements among the nodes. Further, in a cross-border context, multiple regulators and courts of various countries (asking for compliance with their own set of rules and regular reporting) will be involved. All of these must decide whether for compliance with the law and regulations they look at the DLT as a whole (herein called ‘the ledger perspective’) or each individual node (that is each institution participating in the DLT, herein called ‘the node perspective’). Moreover, financial and private law must provide for risk allocation, liability, responsibility and accountability for all legal obligations related to each function and activity.
2022
Zetzsche, Dirk A.; Anker-Sørensen, Linn; Passador, Maria Lucia; Wehrli, Andreas
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11565/4049885
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