Traditional flood protection approaches rely on the construction of artificial infrastructures (dykes, weirs, concrete walls etc) aimed at containing the flood expected on a sufficiently long return time (TR), usually 200 years. This approach has many shortcomings. First of all, the economic cost entailed by infrastructure (which is not simply the construction cost, but also ordinary maintenance and the reconstruction after flood events). Although technologies are well known and costs can be easily standardized, a critical issue for assessing the magnitude of such costs is the assumption to be made about their economic life, which depends on the frequency of events and may thence vary due to climate change.
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